CZAR NICHOLAS II (1868 – 1918)
EMPEROR OF RUSSIA 1894 – 1917
The dictionary defines “Czar” as a king or emperor, especially one of the former emperors of Russia. The word itself derives from the surname “Caesar” of the early Roman Empire, which became the title of the ruler after Hadrian. The German “Kaiser” is obviously another derivative title of the same origin.
In today’s world the title Czar is loosely used in the press, politics and the media. We all know of the Homeland Security “Czar”, the Intelligence “Czar”, the Finance “Czar” and many others. So, perhaps it is worthwhile to take a look at how the last legitimate Czar and Emperor of Russia looked like in those long forgotten days prior to the 1917 Revolution in Russia. The portraits shown here and the description of the medals he wore on official occasions are of interest to all students of Russian history. The resemblance of Czar Nicholas II to his British Royal family cousins is striking.
Our friends at the Moscow Museum of the Imperial Dynasty (please visit their web site at http://www.museum-romanov.narod.ru/) kindly provided the following list of the decorations:
The Order of St. Andrew the First Called (the light blue sash over the shoulder, and the star).
The Order of St.Vladimir, 4th class. Was bestowed to Nicholas Alexandrovich (when he was the Throne Heir) for his diligence being the Chief of the State Committee for building the Trans-Siberian Railroad.
Alexander III Coronation Medal
Alexander III Commemorative Medal
- Danish Order of the Dannebrog.
- Greek Order of the Redeemer.
Order of the Dannebrog The Order of the Dannebrog was established by King Waldemar II in 1219. The Order renewed by King Christian V in 1671. The Order was only to comprise 50 noble Knights in one class plus the Master of the Order, i.e. the King, and his sons. In 1808, the Order was reformed and it was divided into four classes: the Grand Commander class and below that the three regular classes of the Order: Grand Cross (first Order class), Commander 1st Degree and Commander (second Order class), and Knight 1st Degree and Knight (third Order class). The Cross of Honour is attached to the Order of the Dannebrog.
Today, the Order of Dannebrog is a means of rewarding the faithful servants of the modern welfare state for meritorious civil or military service, for a particular contribution to the arts, sciences or business life or for those working for Danish interests.
The monarch heads the Order.
The badge of the Order of the Dannebrog is a white and red-enamelled Dannebrog cross, for the Knights in silver and for everyone else in gold. The cross hangs in the crowned monogram of the bestowing monarch. On its front, the cross bears the crowned monogram of Christian V as well as the motto of the Order: Gud og Kongen (God and the King). On the reverse, the crowned monograms of Valdemar II Sejr, Christian V and Frederik VI, as well as the years 1219, 1671 and 1808 appear. In each of the four angles of the cross a royal crown has been placed.
The Grand Commander class has been reserved to persons of princely origin, and not more than seven Orders are bestowed. The Grand Commanders wear the badge on a necklet (gentlemen) or on a bow (ladies). An eight-pointed silver star is worn on the left side of the chest.
The insignia of the Grand Cross class consist of the badge, the star of the Order (the same as for Grand Commanders), the collar and the sash. The collar of the Order is of gold and the sash is white with a red border. The sash is draped from the right shoulder to the left hip.
Commanders 1st Degree and Commanders wear the badge on the necklet (gentlemen) or on a bow (ladies). Commanders 1st Degree also wear a breast cross.
Knights 1st Degree and Knights wear their cross on a chest ribbon (gentlemen) or on a bow (ladies). Knights 1st Degree have a rosette on the chest ribbon or bow.
The Cross of Honour of the Dannebrog is awarded to Danes on whom the Order of the Dannebrog has already been bestowed. It is also worn by the individual members of the royal family. Its badge is all in silver and it is worn on a ribbon (gentlemen) or bow (ladies) with rosette. (http://www.pinetreeweb.com/bp-honours-denmark.htm)